Type II diabetes and Periodontitis are both chronic inflammatory diseases that affect people worldwide. Periodontitis is characterized by the obliteration of teeth. It affects 10-15% of adults and causes many problems on the quality of life (Preshaw et al., 2012). Diabetes is a disease that arises when your blood sugar is too high. Your blood glucose is the primary source of energy which is consumed by the food you eat. The hormone insulin is produced by the pancreas, which helps the glucose from allowing food to enter your cells. Many studies have shown that type 2 diabetes is a major risk factor for periodontitis and vice versa (Habib, 2018). In the presence of one disease increases the other and put them at risk for many other health related issues. Human research is very valuable regarding gaining more knowledge about these diseases, but the results have also been inconsistent (Okui, 2014).
As a result of the inconsistency researchers have identified the cells present in the inflammation of patients with Periodontitis and Type 2 diabetes, the effects Type 2 diabetes has on the inflammation in, and most importantly identifying the main cell produced in periodontitis that creates pro inflammatory cytokines. Knowing that CD4 T helper cells are the predominant cells found in gingival tissue from patients with type 2 diabetes. This is very helpful for future studies and researchers to better understand how the two diseases correlate with each other. This review will characterize the inflammation present in gingival tissue immune cells in people with Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes along with identifying the predominant cell type responsible to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Stewart, Jocelyn, "CD4 + TH1 Helper Cells: The Unifying Link Between Diabetes AND Periodontitis" (2019). BIO 410 Spring 2019 Research Papers. 1.